January 14, 2020,

What do all the symbols mean?: Copyright

Have you seen these symbols before?: ©,℗? The copyright symbol:© and the phono record symbol:℗ are used as part of a copyright notice. A copyright notice is a statement that informs the public that the author or creator of the work is claiming ownership of the work. What is Copyright?: Copyright is a form of protection granted by law for original works of authorship that are fixed in a tangible medium of expression. Copyright protects literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works including writings, artwork, photographs, poetry, songs and movies. Copyright Notice: A copyright notice consists of three parts: 1. The copyright symbol:© or the phono record symbol:℗ ; 2. the year of first publication of the work; and 3. The name of the copyright owner. For example: © 2019 Johnson Moss L.L.C. When a copyright owner published a phono record that embodied a sound recording, an effective notice had to appear on all publicly distributed phono records. The phono record symbol, ℗, was used for that notice. A phono record is the physical object in which works of authorship are embodied. Phono records include CDs, cassette tapes, LPs, and other vinyl discs, as well as other formats. When you see the copyright symbol :© or the phono record symbol:℗, you are on notice that someone is claiming ownership of copyright in that work. However, seeing these symbols does not mean that the work has been registered with the U.S. Copyright Office.